One of the secrets of success of any project is having on the project manager with good interpersonal or people skills. These tools and techniques help develop good leadership, team building, and motivational results leading to a high functioning team.
Project staff assignments.
These were created as part of the acquire project team process and are used as a main inputs because such staff assignments consist of the list of all team members for the develop project team process and are to be included for this project.
These describe unspecified when each individual project team member will be available to carry out their appropriate tasks within the project, but most importantly here, when they are available to take part within team building activities.
Project management plan.
It is the human resource plan which provides the relevant information for the develop project team process as it outlines how each member of the project team is to be trained, and also how the project team development will be carried out. Included within the human resource plan, will be the dynamics and environment within which the team will perform.
Examples of this could be where the team are located whether they will be using overtime or flexible time, and any general information on their pay or work conditions while assigned to this project.
There are two main outputs from the develop project team process:
develop project team – Team performance assessments.
These are mostly documented updates, and such evaluations are performed by the project manager to focus on improvement areas for the individuals within the team as it is the project manager’s responsibility to increase team performance. In addition the project manager is responsible for identification of appropriate resources which will help to develop the team such as tools, techniques or training requirements.
develop project team – Enterprise environmental factors updates.
As a result of the project team developing new knowledge, skills, and experience, then this information needs to be reflected back into the organization so that these new enhanced skills can provides increased benefits for future projects or operational work by the individuals concerned.
Because of the nature of developing individuals, there are many tools and techniques used within the develop project team process – a total of seven for the project manager to apply:
develop project team – Interpersonal skills.
There are four main behaviours that an excellent project manager should continually demonstrate:
A clear vision of what must be accomplished and how the team need to contribute to realizing that vision. The approach here is to communicate that vision clearly as this will aid in influencing the team and only their part in realizing the vision. The corollary is that each team member must also recognise the benefits to themselves in following the vision
Team members must trust that the project manager has the appropriate leadership skills and abilities to make the project and success, but also to have trust that the project manager will empower them to perform as well as offering support when and where needed. Indeed, the PMI code of ethics and professional conduct states that project managers create an environment that the team can trust and conduct themselves in an open manner.
The approach used by communication and hence the style used must be adapted to meet the needs and environment of the project. Sometimes it is appropriate simply to hand out clear orders, while the other times it may be best to take a softer approach.
Active listening is a key skill here and should include good eye contact, listing with full attention, paraphrasing and clarifying back to the sender and showing empathy with the person’s feelings and opinions.
develop project team – Team building activities.
Such activities focus on building strong relationships between each team member, and such activities may be performed at regular points throughout the project rather than just a special event.
Bruce Tuckman developed a ladder model describing the five stages of team building which is an excellent tool for the project manager to Foster and develop the team into a high performance unit.
This model starts with the Forming stage when the team first come together, and the project manager should encourage the team to get to know each other on an informal basis at this point, and the project to cost meeting could be a good time and place to carry this out.
The second step is Storming which is where the team individuals try to find their place and position within the team. Typically this is where an individual’s personality along with their strengths and weaknesses start to emerge, and as a result there may be some conflict as the individuals try to determine how they are to work together.
The third step is called Norming, and is where the team starts to function as a unit with each knowing exactly what role they play and how they relate with the others.
The fourth step is called Performing and is where the team are now working as a mature and efficient unit. They have empathy and sympathy with each other and it is at this point that the team are greater than the sum of the individuals.
The final step is called Adjourning and is where the team is now disbanded as a result of their work on the project being completed. San Raphael said as a result of this and the project manager can help by celebrating the success and providing a bridge for the individual’s the future path.
In the above five steps, it is vital that the project manager plays a proactive role in either helping the individuals to move swiftly through to the performing step and by resolving any problems or difficulties that may arise. Once the team are performing effectively the project managers role can change to one of delegation and managing ‘at arm’s length’.
develop project team – Training.
The purpose of delivering this sometimes by the project manager or individuals peers, is to allow the individual to acquire new skills and hence increase their ability to carry out the tasks within the project. Often such training will be given by another group such as a training department or a specialist company.
Since training increases the human assets of an organization which is normally be paid for by the performing organization and should not be funded by the customer or the project.
These are the formal or informal rules that lay down the boundaries of behaviour on a project, and it is important that the project manager sets and leads by example in this regard. Such roles may include working hours as an example to ensure that the team are all present during the same time frames.
This simply means that all of the team reside in the same location, which greatly aids communication, problem-solving and the management of issues. It also aids the team being able to form good working relationships with their peers.
Recognition and rewards (theories of motivation).
There are six main theories that should be understood in the develop project team process:
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
This describes two different types of workers and how they should be managed, once it is only interested in their own selfish goals, they dislike work, are unmotivated and must be coerced into carrying out any form of work. This describes the Theory X approach.
Theory Y assumes that people are naturally motivated and are interested in doing their best, given the freedom to do so they can be trusted to work towards the project goals.
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory
The theory here is that there are many work factors that influence satisfaction within the workplace and hence while using the develop project team process, so-called hygiene factors do not make someone satisfied but their absence will make someone unsatisfied. Examples here are the pay and working conditions.
The other factors are called motivation factors and as their name suggests will actively motivate individuals but they will not work without the hygiene factors in place. Examples here are achievement, recognition and advancement.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
This theory states that we all have basic needs another these must first be met by before we can move on to the next higher level of needs. There are five steps within the hierarchy:
The lowest level is thephysiological level covering basics such as food clothing and sleep.
The next level is security bringing freedom from fear, job protection and safety. The third level is social in the form of acceptance and feeling part of the team
The fourth level is the first of the higher needs and is called esteem. This includes feelings of contribution, recognition, and importance and is obviously vital when using the develop project team process
The highest level is called self-actualization and is defined as living and working as an individual’s full potential.
This is similar to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, but is illustrated as a pyramid with the lowest level described as existence, the middle level described as relatedness, and it’s not level described as growth. It could be seen that existence refers to as the physiological and security levels, relatedness refers to acceptance, and growth to the esteem and self actualization of Maslow’s theory.
McClellands theory of Needs
This is also called the achievement theory and states that team members are motivated how the three primary needs:
These are Power which is a behaviour of how people like to organize motivate and lead others, Achievement which refers to individuals who are result oriented and like to achieve objectives and be recognized for it, and Affiliation which describes individuals who prefer being part of a team including acceptance and a need for belonging.
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
This depends on the perception that the individual’s effort will result in a desired outcome and are therefore motivated when they believe that putting in more effort will bring about better job performance leading into organisational rewards that are seen as valuable by the employee.
Forms of power.
Project managers often work within a matrix organization and as such may not have direct power over the project team themselves. It’s important therefore for the project manager to maximize their ability to influence and manage the team during the develop project team process.
There are five forms of power:
Reward power is the ability to give rewards and recognition.
Expert power occurs when the project manager is an expert on the subject matter of the project which will give the project manager increased credibility.
Legitimate power. All forms of power is as a result of the project manager’s position and would need to be supported by the organisation itself.
Referent power is as a result of the charismatic personality of the project manager and their ability to persuade individuals to carry out their wishes.
Punishment or coercive power is the ability to punish until member if the goal is not met.
The best forms of power are reward and expert types, while the least effective form is that of punishment.
There are six approaches here during develop project team which should be used as and when an appropriate situation occurs:
The best approaches here are collaborating and confronting/problem-solving. Forcing is using seeing as the least desirable approach to use.
If you need help to get the PMP Exam results you deserve, then CLICK HERE
David spent 25 years as a senior project manager for US multinationals and now develops a wide range of project-related downloadable video training products under the Primer brand. In addition, David runs training seminars across the world, and is a prolific writer on the many topics of project management. He currently lives in Spain with his wife Jude.