This PMBOK process uses all of the knowledge areas and includes a massive 20 processes. These occur throughout the project until we start immediately after the project charter is approved. The main output here is the project management plan, its various strategies and baselines.
The project management plan contents are used throughout the project to was the actual performance against plan, variances and forecasts. But unless the project is very small, the plan details will be fairly high level these are refined as the project moves through its various phases or stages. This is called rolling wave planning where aspects of the project management plan are updated at the end of each stage or phase as part of seeking approval to proceed.
The sequence in which the PMBOK processes take place are fairly logical although an amount of iteration will normally take place.